MAPS Bulletin - $40,402
The Bulletin, published three times a year focuses mostly on articles about MAPS' various projects with occasional themed issues. Our themed issue in early 2010 was about psychedelics, death and dying. In order to save funds, we have switched to sending out one themed issue, one shorter summer issue, and one medium-sized year-end issue. Although we have expanded our communications with members through our website and email updates, the Bulletin remains a key educational tool both for current and prospective members.

MAPS Monthly Email Updates - $3,506
Each month we send out an electronic newsletter to update our readers about our research projects and other matters of interest to MAPS members and friends. This year we implemented a new email sending program that is reducing the amount of time that it takes to send the newsletter, and has allowed us to send out more frequent action-oriented newsletters.

Book-Ultimate Journey - $11,255
After successfully distributing the first print run The Ultimate Journey, we printed a second edition of 5000 copies. Stanislav Grof, M.D., Ph.D., co-founder of Holotropic Breathwork and the field of Transpersonal Psychology, is the author of this popular title, which delves into the mystery of death, a topic that is central to our research with LSD and end-of-life anxiety. Donations to cover the costs of the second edition were received from XXX and XXX.

Information/Printing & Copies - $5676
This is the cost of MAPS staff requesting or disseminating information in digital or printed form.


Content Management System Upgrade - $6,621
Our website is our primary educational tool, and it has achieved this status through daily informational updates. In order to allow us to make these updates more efficiently, we installed a new content management system. This content management system allows multiple staff members to add and edit content for the website, while only requiring them to learn a minimal amount of html.

Web Forum (online discussion group) - $60
The MAPS forum allows members to sign up for an email list to discuss topics pertaining to MAPS’ mission. We are able to maintain a low cost since it is operated by volunteer moderators.

Web Administration - $4,076
This is the cost for keeping our servers running for our website, webstore, and email.

Web Hosting - $7,634
This is the cost for renting our server, which hosts our website, webstore, and email. Also included under this line item are the charges for Internet in our offices (Santa Cruz headquarters and two home offices in the Boston area).

Web Content - $5,244
This is the cost associated with adding content to our website.

WEB TOTAL - $23,634



Conference-DPA - $7,517
MAPS Executive Director Rick Doblin, Ph.D., along with five staff members, attended the Drug Policy Alliance national conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico. At this conference, MAPS hosted a panel on MDMA-assisted psychotherapy and MAPS clinical drug development plan. MAPS staff and volunteers also set up an exhibit booth to recruit members and sell merchandise.

Conference-Symbiosis - $1,099
MAPS staffed an exhibit and hosted a panel at the Symbiosis art and music conference in California in summer 2009.

Conference-Horizons - $2,457
MAPS Deputy Director Valerie Mojeiko gave a talk at the Horizons psychedelic conference in fall 2009. MAPS also staffed a table at this event, which sold books and memberships. This was the most financially successful table that MAPS has ever had at an event other than events that were organized by MAPS.

Conference-Summer Festivals - $3,191
MAPS has educated and recruited members, particularly members from the younger generation, at various summer festivals on the west coast for the past several years. This program was made possible through a matching grant sponsored by Rene and Susan Ruiz, donors who give $25 each time a new member gives $10.

Vancouver Fundraiser - $7,076
On October 24, 2009 MAPS hosted a fundraiser for our MDMA/PTSD study in Vancouver, from which we brought in over $10,000 from a total of around 80 attendees. Key  Members of the local community interested in psychedelics, and current and former officials from the local government were present at this event. The feeling of community was so strong that the event generated interest in forming MAPS Canada, which was done with incorporation papers filed with the Canadian government in October 2010.

Santa Cruz Brunch - $2,806
On August 8, 2010, shortly after MAPS relocated our office to Santa Cruz (next to an urgent care doctor’s office on a main road), we planned a meet-and-greet brunch in town. Fortunately, a week before our event, MAPS was featured in the local weekly newspaper as the cover story. This event paid for itself in ticket sales, and allowed us to meet our supporters from the local community and gain new members.

Conference Moscow - $11,984
MAPS sent a group of presenters to Moscow in June 2010 for the International Transpersonal Association conference, including Michael Mithoefer, M.D., Ann Mithoefer, B.S.N., Rick Doblin Ph.D., and Bill Richards, Ph.D. These costs include flight and lodging for these presenters. The International Transpersonal Association is one of our key allies, and it was meaningful for us to be allowed to present about psychedelic research in Russia, where for many years MAPS sponsored the research of Dr. Evgeny Krupitsky in St. Petersburg. Dr. Krupistky investigated ketamine-assisted psychotherapy for alcoholism and opiate addiction. Unfortunately, ketamine research has not been permitted in Russia now for about a decade, after ketamine became a recreational drug in Russia and all research was forbidden. We have not been allowed to distribute our books in Russia due to government restrictions on promoting illegal drugs. While the conference and our presentations were well received, we learned that the prohibition on psychedelic research in Russia is still in place and not likely to be reversed any time soon.

Online Video Education Project - $1,250
Our online video education project started with videos from Psychedelic Science in the 21st Century. Anyone can watch the presentations for free on the MAPS website now. For a nominal fee, medical professionals can earn CE and CME credits from watching the videos. This is one of our key education projects of this year, and one of the main ways that our conference will have a lasting impact. Our CME/CE accreditation also lends significant credibility to the field of psychedelic research.

Video-Difficult Trip Guidance - $1,030
These funds were for creation of a shorter version of this video suitable for YouTube. This video was originally created for a Unitarian church program to educate teens about how to help a friend who is having a difficult psychedelic experience. We have continued to edit and revise it over the years.




MAPS acts as a fiscal sponsor for outside projects. As a fiscal sponsor we assist these projects by handling their accounting for them. All of these expenses are balances by income from each project. The projects that follow belong in this category.
Website EROWID - $14,725
MAPS has served as fiscal sponsor for Erowid since 1999. Erowid is a popular website offering information about a wide range of drugs; it is visited by about 50,000 unique visitors per day. Erowid has now obtained its own non-profit status and MAPS is no longer needed as a fiscal sponsor. However, some donors still send funds to MAPS out of habit or as part of employer matching programs that take time to change. As a result, we still receive some donations for Erowid.

Burning Man 2008 - $1,775
These are late expenses for Entheon Village 2008, for which MAPS handled the finances. As in years before and after, registration fees covered expenses.

Burning Man 2009 -  $120,769
These are expenses for Entheon Village 2009, for which MAPS handled the finances. As in years before and after, registration fees covered expenses.

Burning Man 2010 - $485
MAPS has handled funds for Entheon Village since 2006, when we helped to create the village for our 20th anniversary. Expenses of Entheon Village were covered by registration fees, for which people did not receive tax receipts since their fees were for services provided and were not donations. MAPS organized a lecture series about psychedelic research and culture as part of our educational mission. Participation in Entheon Village helped MAPS fulfill our educational goals.

Bluelight Forum - $1,030
The Bluelight forum is an online community where participants can discuss news and information related to drugs that are not yet legal. The forum also hosts an online community of MAPS members.

Women's Alliance for Medical Marijuana (WAMM) - $5,000
WAMM is a collective of patients (and their caregivers) who use medical marijuana, many of whom have cancer or other serious ailments. WAMM was founded by Valerie and Mike Corral and is a model medical marijuana collective.

WAMM Movie - $2,532
Wammovie is feature length documentary film that will show the human drama of facing disease, the end of life and a person's right to choose how they deal with both. This film is based on footage and interviews collected from WAMM.



Psychedelic Science in the 21st Century Conference - $232,050
MAPS hosted Psychedelic Science in the 21st Century, the largest conference on psychedelic research in North America in over 40 years. Psychedelic Science brought together attendees and presenters from around the globe and offered three concurrent tracks of presentations. One track was fully accredited to offer Continuing Medical Education credits for medical doctors, and the other two tracks offered Continuing Education (CE) credits to other medical professionals. After all expenses were accounted for, MAPS made a profit of $70,206 from this event. Half of the profits have been used to pay for the Psychedelic Researchers’ Seminar which took place immediately following the conference and the online video education project which contains videos from all of the conference presentations on our website. The remaining profits will be used to fund our educational mission, including this Bulletin.




Art for Resale - $21,135
During the past fiscal year, we began offering moderately priced artwork for sale. Although many pieces we offer for sale are donated, we also purchase some artwork on consignment or pay the production costs outright.

Royalties - $4,891
These were paid out to Dr. Grof for the sales of the 1st edition of Ultimate Journey that MAPS published.

Products - $25,206
This is the cost of products for resale in our online store and at events.



MDMA/PTSD U.S. - $110,000
Ongoing expenses for this completed study were mostly for data verification and auditing and preparation of a final report for the FDA. The FDA requires data to be 99.5% accurate. Our internal audit produced a 99.575% accuracy rate. Preparing for this audit took a considerable amount of staff time, since this was our first study and the data collection process needed more refinement. Now that we have completed one full study from start to finish, we are able to apply lessons learned from this audit to tighten up our data collection procedures for future studies. The promising results of this study, published July 19, 2010, in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, have been widely reported around the world.

MDMA/PTSD U.S. Long-Term Follow-Up - $3,952
One of the least expensive and highest impact studies that we are conducting is a long-term follow-up of subjects who were in our flagship MDMA study in Charleston. This study has completed data collection, and results are currently being prepared for publication. We have found that the results were sustained over the study period (average of about 3.5 years with a range of 15-35 months), and that many subjects still do not meet the criteria for having PTSD. These results are even more important than the results of the initial study, with outcome measures taken two months after the last MDMA treatment session. Now that we have evidence showing that therapeutic gains can last over time, it is all the more important to continue our research efforts.

MDMA/PTSD U.S. Veterans of War- $51,055
These expenses are for protocol development and approval for our newest U.S. MDMA/PTSD study, which is enrolling veterans of war who have chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. There is a growing public concern over veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan with serious and untreated PTSD. In this study, we will attempt to heal some of the trauma of war with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. We will also seek to enroll several veterans with PTSD from Vietnam, to investigate whether we can help people with extremely long-lasting PTSD.

MDMA/PTSD Switzerland - $33,460
Our Swiss MDMA/PTSD pilot study in 12 subjects completed the final subject’s last treatment visit in January 2010. MAPS’ research team has now begun the data collection and verification process, using a database that was built by a highly-skilled volunteer. This study is being conducted under MAPS’ investigational new drug (IND) application for MDMA with the FDA. The final one-year follow-up data will be gathered in January 2011, after which we will work to complete a scientific paper to be submitted for publication to a peer-reviewed journal. The paper will report on both the initial data and the one-year follow-up data. Preliminary results show a clinically relevant treatment effect and provide further justification for expansion of our international series of MDMA/PTSD pilot studies.

MDMA/PTSD Israel - $27,308
This item is for ongoing costs associated with Moshe Kotler M.D.’s MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study, conducted at Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center, the largest mental hospital in Israel. The Israeli study continued to enroll patients during this fiscal year before the study was concluded in the summer of 2010 after five subjects had been enrolled. We found MDMA-assisted psychotherapy did not cause any Serious Adverse Events. Cardiovascular effects and side effects were similar to those reported in the literature and did not require intervention. The data suggest MDMA-assisted psychotherapy does not cause harm in this subject population. Some subjects reported benefits, but the CAPS scores did not reflect these benefits. This research study was ended when MAPS’ study monitors determined that the quality of data collected at the study site was found to be inconsistent due to study staff turnover. In addition, we realized we needed to provide more training to our co-therapists. MAPS is now attempting to start a new study with Dr. Kotler, and the Israeli Defense Forces have indicated interest in referring subjects to the study.

MDMA/PTSD Canada - $9,814
This item is for protocol development and approval for a not-yet-begun MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study in Vancouver, Canada, to enroll 12 subjects. Psychiatrist Ingrid Pacey, M.D., and psychologist Andrew Feldmar, M.A., will act as co-therapists on this study. A Canadian Institutional Review Board has approved the study, as has Health Canada. During this fiscal year we worked to obtain permits for importing the MDMA from Switzerland into Canada, which has proven to be a frustrating process with much delay. Since Canada and the U.S. share a common culture, this study will allow us the opportunity to determine whether therapeutic outcomes will replicate our outstanding results from our flagship U.S. study in a similar cultural context, or whether the results will be more similar to the good results we obtained in our Swiss study, in a different cultural context.

MDMA/PTSD Spain - $364
Together with former MAPS-sponsored investigator Jose Carlos Bouso, Ph.D., and Jordi Riba, Ph.D., MAPS developed a protocol for an MDMA/PTSD study in Spain, which was to be our first completed study in the European Union.  In 2000, MAPS and Jose Carlos Bouso started the world’s first controlled study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. However, in 2002, after positive media attention to the study, the Madrid Anti-Drug Authority was able to shut the study down for political reasons. A paper reporting on the preliminary results was published by Jose Carlos Bouso, et. al. Now, after the successful completion of our U.S. and Swiss pilot studies, it would be possible to obtain permission for a new Spanish study, especially since Jose Carlos has moved to Barcelona to work with Jordi Riba, who has conducted several Phase 1 psychedelic studies. However, after much discussion after the protocol was completed, MAPS and the investigators decided that due to other research obligations and interests of the potential investigators, we will not go forward with this protocol in Spain. The MDMA/PTSD protocol design, which is unique among our Phase 2 pilot study designs in that it uses d-amphetamine as an active comparator instead of lower doses of MDMA, may still be used at an alternate site at some point in the future.

MDMA PTSD-Jordan - $31,455
MAPS’s is working to start MDMA/PTSD research in Amman, Jordan, and we have received a restricted grant of $85,000 for this study. We reported last year that this would cover the entire budget for the study, but now we have enlarged the study and expect it to cost a total of $135,000. The protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board at Al-Rashid Hospital in Amman, and has been submitted to the Jordanian FDA. As part of this study, MAPS is creating the first Arabic translation of our primary outcome variable, the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). In this way, we will help facilitate other PTSD research in the Arabic speaking world.

MDMA Therapy Training Protocol - $15,038
This therapist training/ Phase 1 psychological effects protocol is a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. It allows MAPS to administer a single MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session to therapists as part of their training to conduct MAPS' MDMA/PTSD studies, while also conducting a series of evaluations of the psychological effects of MDMA administered to healthy volunteers in a therapeutic context. MAPS therapy training protocol is fully approved and ready to be implemented once we have a need to train additional therapists. These expenses were for protocol development and approval.

Michael Mithoefer Supervisory Time/Public Relations - $42,076
Now that they have completed and published a study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy, Michael and Annie Mithoefer are key representatives on behalf of MAPS’ MDMA/PTSD research. After completing the first study, the Mithoefers took a break from conducting research to write up their results for publication, develop our treatment manual, consult with our other research teams in Switzerland and Israel, speak to the press and present their work at academic conferences. They also trained a group of therapists from our Jordanian study in April 2010, and then offered a daylong pre-conference workshop on therapeutic technique to over 150 people who came a day early to Psychedelic Science. Since the demands on the Mithoefer’s time are high both in a supervisory/PR capacity as well as in a research capacity, MAPS is now working to develop additional credentialed research staff who can also present our collective accomplishments and teach workshops, so that the Mithoefers time can used most strategically. Marcela Otalora-Gomez, M.F.T., who worked as a co-therapist on our Spain study, taught a recent workshop in Boulder on our MDMA/PTSD treatment manual.

MDMA Research General - $11,405
These are general expenditures in support of our MDMA research efforts that benefit multiple projects, such as training, reports to the U.S. FDA and so forth.

MDMA Treatment Manual - $8,752
We revised our treatment manual in this fiscal year, following our MDMA/PTSD therapist-training seminar in Austria the prior year. After the seminar, we improved the adherence measures and other content. We then released a new edition of the manual at Psychedelic Science in the 21st Century in April 2010 and have continued to revise it. The treatment manual is a working document that we are revising as new information becomes available and we learn from our successes and mistakes. Refining and defining our treatment method will be key to our success in starting Phase 3 multi-site studies.

MDMA Literature Review - $3,256
MAPS research specialist Ilsa Jerome, Ph.D., is responsible for keeping current on the state of the world’s scientific, peer-reviewed literature on MDMA. She continued this ongoing review throughout FY 09-10. When applying to the FDA and institutional review boards with a new protocol, it is necessary to have a comprehensive review of all factors related to risk. This literature review is becoming less expensive each year due to the relatively settled state of MDMA research, with the research generating relatively few changes in the risk-benefit estimates. Over the years, MAPS has spent about $150,000 on our MDMA literature review and have “captured” an estimated $300 million worth of research, all of which was in the public domain. The enormity of the published literature on the risks and mechanisms of action of MDMA and Ecstasy, over 3500 papers indexed in Medline, is the primary reason that MAPS can develop MDMA into a prescription medicine for around $10 million.

Conference PTSD (Israel/Switzerland) -$1,897
From October 18-23, 2009, Rick Doblin and Michael Mithoefer attended an international conference on posttraumatic stress disorder, Future Directions in PTSD: Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment, organized by The Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Institute for Advanced Studies. The conference was an extraordinary opportunity to meet with and learn from the world’s leading experts in PTSD, including representatives of the U.S. Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration.

From June 16-19, 2010 the International Federation of Psychotherapy convened a Congress in Lucerne, Switzerland. As a sign of the growing acceptance of psychedelic psychotherapy research, this mainstream psychotherapy conference had a seminar devoted to the topic. MAPS sent researchers Michael Mithoefer M.D., Annie Mithoefer, B.S.N., Peter Oehen, M.D., Verena Widmer, R.N., and Peter Gasser, M.D., to present results from MAPS-sponsored studies. Also on the panel was renowned German psychedelic researcher Torsten Passie, M.D. This was the first presentation about new data from psychedelic psychotherapy research at a mainstream psychotherapy conference in Europe in over 35 years.

MAPS Research Retreat '09 - $27,067
In June 2009, MAPS held a weeklong retreat in the Austrian mountains for therapists who are using, or plan to be using, MDMA in association with psychotherapy to treat PTSD.  Attendees at the conference came from seven different countries! Our research teams had previously been in communication via email and occasional phone calls, but had not yet had an opportunity to spend an extended period of time together to discuss how they were conducting the therapy. At this retreat, we watched and commented on videotapes from each research team and also discussed a range of topics relevant to the research. We also learned that different teams had a lot in common, but also had some significant differences in their treatment approach. The location was chosen for centrality, since our teams were convening from Europe, the Middle East, and the U.S. Since the town of Flachau is a winter sport destination, we were able to rent out a ski lodge at a reduced summertime rate.

MAPS Research Retreat '10 - $10,128
The Psychedelic Science Researchers’ Seminar was held in San Jose California on April 20-21, 2010, after the completion of the Psychedelic Science conference, where most of the researchers had presented. This seminar offered opportunities for collaboration and sharing between MAPS and our allied organizations: Hefter, Council on Spiritual Practices and the Beckley Foundation, as well as a number of allied individuals. A multidisciplinary group of anthropologists, neuroscientists, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists, a biologist and a social worker were in attendance. This seminar built upon the previous year’s retreat in that researchers from other organizations were invited, and the focus was expanded from MDMA/PTSD research to all research with psychedelics. MAPS hired a professional facilitator to lead the meeting and paid all the expenses of the researchers retreat.

Salvia Research (ITP) - $4,000
MAPS received a donation that was restricted to a salvia divinorum study being conducted at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology (ITP). Salvinorin A, the active ingredient in salvia divinorum, was administered to 30 participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. The purpose of this study was to observe how salvinorin A affects general well-being. Although this study does not fit into our primary research mission of studying psychedelics’ potential for treating specific medical conditions, we were pleased to act as the fiscal sponsor, since many of our members have expressed interest in learning more about salvia.

Iboga Therapy House (Canada) - $484
These costs were for completing and submitting a final report to the Institutional Review Board for MAPS’s ibogaine outcome study in Canada. The study ended prematurely due to the closure of the clinic where subjects were to be recruited.

Ibogaine Outcome Study (Mexico) - $6,425
These expenses were for an observational study of patients treated at Pangea Biomedics, an ibogaine clinic in Mexico. This study, led by John Harrison, PsyD candidate, enrolled a total of 16 subjects and followed them for up to one year after treatment at the clinic.

LSD Swiss End-of-Life Study - $7,824
MAPS continued sponsorship responsibilities, including monitoring, data collection, and ongoing regulatory communications for our Swiss study of patients who are experiencing anxiety associated with end-of-life issues. This study tests whether LSD-assisted psychotherapy can reduce anxiety and pain in these patients. The study treated its 7th subject in this fiscal year.  At the time of this writing, 11 of the 12 subjects have been enrolled in the study. When completed it will become the first study of the therapeutic use of LSD in over 35 years.

LSD/Psilocybin Cluster Headache - $10,023
These funds were used to support Clusterbusters in their efforts to develop an approach to using LSD to treat cluster headaches. Cluster headaches are a particularly debilitating type of headache; sufferers have found that LSD and psilocybin can reduce the occurrence and severity of their headaches.

Israel Marijuana Farm - $5,339
Through the generous, restricted donations of David Bronner, MAPS has been able to help support the development of medical marijuana in Israel in the initial stages, before producers where able to charge for their medicine. These expenses were for bringing U.S. medical marijuana experts Valerie and Mike Corral, and Mimi Peleg, to Israel for meetings with several of the Israeli producers and patient advocates.

Marijuana PTSD - $929
On November 11, 2010, MAPS submitted to the FDA a protocol to study the use of marijuana in treating symptoms of PTSD. These expenses are for early protocol design of a controlled, randomized, dose-response, triple-blind investigation of five different doses of marijuana, smoked or vaporized, in 50 veterans with chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. The subjects will receive marijuana for four weeks, then go through a two-week period of cessation, then randomly receive another batch of marijuana for four more weeks of medication, then two weeks of cessation. Currently, numerous anecdotal reports of PTSD sufferers self-medicating with marijuana suggest that marijuana as a medicine treats symptoms (especially nightmares) but requires chronic, daily administration. In contrast, MDMA-assisted psychotherapy addresses the core problem and is only used a few times, yet is more expensive and time-consuming. As a key part of our study design, we are requesting that NIDA provide us with a strain of marijuana that contains significant amounts (6%) of cannabidiol (CBD) in addition to significant amounts of THC (6%). CBD has been found to reduce anxiety but has yet to be explored in PTSD subjects. Currently, NIDA does not produce marijuana with CBD, highlighting another reason why NIDA’s monopoly obstructs or delays research and should be ended.

Clinical Research General - $34,341
These are expenses for our clinical research that are for all studies. We’ve chosen not to allocate a share of these expenses across all of our research projects, but instead to create this special category.


Compensation of officers, directors, etc and other salaries and wages
The gross salary for MAPS Executive Director Rick Doblin, Ph.D. was $60,000. Aside from Rick, MAPS employed seven full-time staff positions and five part time positions. Two of the full time positions and two part-time positions were allocated fully to research. The other three part time positions were primarily allocated to education projects. The other five full time positions are allocated to a mixture of research projects, educational projects and operations. MAPS’ strives to attract and retain high-performing staff, and in doing so, offers a competitive salary package. The gross salary for these thirteen positions was $371,585.10 total ($317,148.65 full time, $54,436.45 part time). These numbers differ from what is seen in Chart 5, because staff salaries are allocated across various projects. In addition to these salaries MAPS paid out $27,656 in company payroll taxes and $23,723 in employee benefits (including healthcare and education).


Accounting fees - $5,852
The preparation cost for the Certified Public Accountant for MAPS 990 tax return for FY 2008-2009.

Telephone - $18,558
The cost of MAPS conferencing, cell phones and office phones in both Boston and Santa Cruz.

Postage and Shipping - $15,419
The total amount spent for shipping of all products, art, and information.

Occupancy - $24,486
Our primary office rent in Santa Cruz.

Moving Expenses - $1,883
Expenses related to moving the office from Ben Lomond to Santa Cruz.

Equipment Rental and Maintenance - $1,927

Travel - $6,738
The total cost for all operations related travel.

Other Conferences and Events - $6,390
Tickets and vending costs for non-MAPS events.

Extraordinary Back Payroll Taxes (from 2007) - $4,203
Due to an accounting oversight in 2007, MAPS was liable this year for back payroll taxes owed from tax year 2007.

Bank fees, Credit Card fees, Licenses - $20,543
We spent slightly more this year than previous years on credit card fees from the expenses of selling tickets to the Psychedelic Science conference in San Jose through our online store.