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Re: MAPS: MDMA and calcium leaching / teeth grinding - References sought



    Hi there Patrick and others. Sorry to be so dull and simply offer yet
more abstracts but i thought that the following two pieces would be of
interest to your research. Unfortunately, the articles do not go into
separation of physiological foundations of 'grinding' but, as the abstracts
mention, tooth problems may be due to concommitant use of sugary soft drinks
with Ecstasy. Users grind and dissolve their teeth away. The studies took
place in Liverpool,UK and volunteers were obtained from the Maryland centre,
an institution offering advice, amongst other things, for problematic drug
use. Hence, the volunteer's drug use may be atypical and accompanied by use
of non-MDMA amphetamines


TI:  The occurrence of toothwear in users of Ecstasy (3,4-Methylene-
DioxyMethAmphetamine)
 AU:  Milosevic_A, Agrawal_N, Redfearn_PJ, Mair_LH
 NA:  UNIV LIVERPOOL,SCH DENT,DEPT CLIN DENT SCI,POB 147,LIVERPOOL L69
3BX,MERSEYSIDE,ENGLAND
 JN:  COMMUNITY DENTISTRY AND ORAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 1999, Vol.27, No.4,
pp.283-287
 IS:  0301-5661
 DT:  Article
 AB:  Ecstasy users have reported that dry mouth, jaw tension and tooth
grinding were common side effects of its use although the influence of these
effects upon toothwear have not been previously investigated. Objective:
This study aimed to compare incisal and occlusal toothwear in Ecstasy users
and a group of non-users of Ecstasy but users of other drugs. Methods:
Groups were established by a snowball peer information network from visitors
to the ''drop-in'' Maryland centre in Liverpool. Volunteers completed a
questionnaire about social life, drug use and diet. Clinical examination for
wear on the incisal edges and on canine tips was conducted with a mirror and
probe, whereas occlusal wear was recorded in impressions and subsequently
scored from stone replica casts. The degree of toothwear was scored
according to the criteria of the Tooth Wear Index (Smith & Knight, Br Dent J
1984;157:16). Results: Ecstasy users (n = 30) were compared with non-users
(n = 28). Toothwear through the enamel into the underlying dentine occurred
in 18 (60%) Ecstasy users but in only three (11%) non-users. The overall
mean toothwear score in Ecstasy users was 0.63 compared with 0.16 in
non-users (t = 4.34, P < 0.001). Dry mouth was reported by 93% of Ecstasy
users whilst 89% stated that they clenched or ground their teeth after
taking the drug. Tooth grinding commonly continued into the following
morning. Carbonated (acidic) beverages were consumed by 93% of the users
with a mean of three cans per ''trip''. Conclusion: The severity of
toothwear and the number of teeth affected were greater in Ecstasy users
than in a group of non-users. The occlusal surfaces were more commonly
affected than the incisal, which may indicate jaw clenching rather than
grinding as a feature of Ecstasy-induced muscle hyperactivity.
 KP:  DENTAL-HEALTH, DRUG-ADDICTS, MDMA, WEAR
 WA:  bruxism, Ecstasy, erosion, toothwear
 CR:  ANGELILLO_IF, 1991 Vol.19 p.36, COMMUNITY DENT ORAL
CARTER_EF, 1978 Vol.23 p.308, AUST DENT J
DAWSON_PE, 1989 p.410, EVALUATION DIAGNOSIS
DICUGNO_F, 1981 Vol.26 p.363, ARCH ORAL BIOL
DUXBURY_AJ, 1993 Vol.175 p.38, BRIT DENT J
GREER_G, 1986 Vol.18 p.319, J PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS
HENRY_JA, 1992 Vol.305 p.5, BRIT MED J
HENRY_JA, 1992 Vol.340 p.384, LANCET
MAIR_LH, 1996 Vol.24 p.141, J DENT
MILOSEVIC_A, 1989 Vol.167 p.66, BRIT DENT J
MILOSEVIC_A, 1997 Vol.14 p.143, COMMUNITY DENT HLTH
MOLENDIJK_B, 1996 Vol.24 p.117, COMMUNITY DENT ORAL
SCHEUTZ_F, 1984 Vol.12 p.23, COMMUNITY DENT ORAL
SMITH_BGN, 1984 Vol.157 p.16, BRIT DENT J
SOLOWIJ_N, 1992 Vol.87 p.1161, BRIT J ADDICT


(2)
 TI:  An association between the regular use of 3,4 methylenedioxy-
methamphetamine (Ecstasy) and excessive wear of the teeth
 AU:  Redfearn_PJ, Agrawal_N, Mair_LH
 NA:  UNIV LIVERPOOL,DEPT CLIN DENT SCI,POB 147,LIVERPOOL L69
3BX,MERSEYSIDE,ENGLAND UNIV LIVERPOOL,DEPT CLIN SCI,LIVERPOOL L69
3BX,MERSEYSIDE,ENGLAND
 JN:  ADDICTION, 1998, Vol.93, No.5, pp.745-748
 IS:  0965-2140
 DT:  Article
 AB:  Aims. This study was established to determine if users of ecstasy had
greater tooth wear than a comparison group of non-users. Design. The study
involved a direct comparison between two groups of young people gathered by
a peer information network and divided by the response to the question ''Do
you take ecstasy?'' Setting. The information network was established at the
Maryland Centre in Liverpool (UK). Besides offering advice on drug and
sex-related problems this centre distributes free condoms and is therefore
visited by many young people who would not consider themselves to have these
problems. Participants. There were 30 users and 28 non- users with no
significant difference in the gender ratio. Age was not recorded to maintain
absolute confidentiality, but all the participants appeared to be of student
age. Measurements. Tooth wear was measured wing the index of Smith & Knight.
The social and drug- taking profile of the two groups was ascertained by
questionnaire. Findings. It was found that the mean (+/- STD) tooth wear
score for the back teeth was 0.96 +/- 0.16 in the users compared with 0.12
+/- 0.08 for the comparison group. These values were significantly different
(p < 0.001). The values for the front teeth were not significantly
different. Many users were aware of clenching their teeth 12 or even 24
hours after taking the drug. Conclusion. Taking ecstasy results in an
increased likelihood of tooth wear on the back teeth. This is likely to
result from clenching the teeth in the acidic environment caused by
carbonated (fizzy) drinks.
 KP:  MDMA
 CR:  DUXBURY_AJ, 1993 Vol.175 p.38, BRIT DENT J
EVERY_RG, 1971 p.23, EARLY MAMMALS
GREER_G, 1986 Vol.18 p.319, J PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS
MAIR_LH, 1996 Vol.24 p.141, J DENT
MILOSEVIC_A, 1989 Vol.167 p.66, BRIT DENT J
SMITH_BGN, 1984 Vol.157 p.16, BRIT DENT J
SOLOWIJ_N, 1992 Vol.87 p.1161, BRIT J ADDICT


Hope this helps

Harry Sumnall
Dept of Psychology
University of Liverpool


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