maps • volume xiv number 2 • rites of passage: kids and psychedelics 2004
Additional Resources
Foldes, A. et al. 1995. "Youths and Entheogen Use--A Modern Rite of Passage?" MAPS Bulletin 6(1): 39-42. Addresses the question, "What relevance do these ancient traditions have to the experience of a modern adolescent growing up in the western world?"
"WhatDoWeTelltheKids?"1996/97MAPSBulletin7(1):27-45. A collection of relevant articles including: "Drug Education and Democracy [In]action" (by J.H. Brown), "High School Students talk about Drug Education Programs" (an interview conducted by J.H. Brown), "Stumbling on His Stash" (by Alice B.), and "The Rite of Passage: A family's perspective on the use of MDMA" (anonymous).
"MDMA and Pregnancy." MAPS web site, 1999. A discussion of the October 1999 paper in Lancet, titled "Congenital anomalies after prenatal ecstasy exposure."

Journal articles

Abramson H.A. 1967. "The Use of LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide) in the Therapy of Children (a brief review)." Journal of Asthma Research 5: 139-143.

Bender, L. 1970. "Children's Reactions to Psychotomimetic Drugs." In Efron, D.H. Efron (ed.) 1970. Psychotomimetic Drugs. pp. 265-273. North Holland Publishing.

Bender, L. et al. 1962. "Treatment of Autistic Schizophrenic Children with LSD-25 and UML-491," Recent Advances in Biological Psychology 4: 170-177.

Bos, P. 1971. "Use of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Child Psychiatry," Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie 67(4): 237-241.

Dobkin de Rios, M. and C.S. Grob. 1994. "Hallucinogens, Suggestibility & Adolescence in Cross-Cultural Perspective." Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness 3: 113-132.

Fisher G. 1970. "The Psycholytic Treatment of a Childhood Schizophrenic Girl." International Journal of Social Psychiatry (London) 16(2): 112-130.

Fisher G. 1997. "Treatment of Childhood Schizophrenia Utilizing LSD and Psilocybin." MAPS Bulletin 7(3): 18-25.

Grob, C.S. and M. Dobkin de Rios. 1992. "Adolescent Drug Use in Cross-Cultural Perspective." Journal of Drug Issues 22(1): 121-138.

Jacobs, D. 1996. "The Use of Datura Species in Rites of Transition." In M. Winkelman and W Andritzky (eds.) 1996. Yearbook of Cross-Cultural Medicine and Psychotherapy. pp. 341­351. Verlag füur Wissenschaft und Bildung.

Johnson, T.F. 1972. "Datura fastuosa: Its Use in Tsonga Girl's Initiation." Economic Botany 26: 340-351.

Mogar, R.E. and R.W. Aldrich. 1969. "The Use of Psychedelic Agents with Autistic Schizophrenic Children," Behavioral Neuropsychiatry 1: 44-50.

Rhead, J.C. 1977. "The Use of Psychedelic Drugs in the Treatment of Severely Disturbed Children: A Review," Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 9(2): 93-101.

Rolo, A. et al. 1967. "Preliminary Study of LSD with Children," 2nd International Conference on the Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism. pp. 619-625.

Samuelsson, B.O. 1974. "LSD Intoxication in a Two-year-old Child," Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 63: 797-798. Shedler, J. and J. Block. 1990. "Adolescent Drug Use and Psychological Health." American Psychologist 45(5): 612-630.

Smith, D.E. and J.L. Sternfield. 1970. "Natural Childbirth and Cooperative Child Rearing in Psychedelic Communes." The Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 3(1): 120-124.

Research Supporting Alternatives to Current Drug Prevention Education for Young People by Rodney Skager (Feb 2003). A selected set of annotated references on changes necessary to drug prevention education for young people.
A Collection of References on Drugs and Children--What Causes Drug Problems Among Children, and How to Deal With Them When They Happen. Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. The Erowid Families & Psychoactives Vault provides documents and resources on the topic of families' relationships to psychoactive substances. It isn't really clear how people in our culture can integrate psychoactive sub- stances usefully and coherently into their lives with their children. There are many complexities: legal, social, dependency, abuse, access, fears, personal freedom, parental responsibility, etc. In order to lay the groundwork for humans to have more balanced relationships with psychoactive substances, the first step may be to simply collect and share the experiences of people who have faced these challenges. While we have information about what happens in traditional cultures, modern society is so removed from family-oriented villages that it is not at all clear what to do with such wisdom teachings. With this Vault, Erowid hopes to cover: families who value psychedelics; coming out of the psychedelic closet; mentoring and rites-of-passage; families torn apart: when dialog breaks down; pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding; drug education; other stories of how drugs or the discussion of drugs have impacted a family; media treatment of these issues. Articles, ideas, and comments can be sent to
Families Against Mandatory Minimums is a national nonprofit organization founded in 1991 to challenge inflexible and excessive penalties required by mandatory sentencing laws.
Anonymous. "Confessions of a Middle-Aged Ecstasy Eater." Granta 74 (May 2001). A distinguished writer makes an anonymous confession and defends a habit: his son supplies him with Ecstasy.
Mothers Against Misuse and Abuse. Formed in 1982 to address the multifacted issues of substance use, misuse and abuse. MAMA's approach is based on personal responsibility and informed decision making, with respect for human dignity.


Barry, L. 1999. Cruddy. Simon & Schuster. [Fiction] On a September night in 1971, a few days after getting busted for dropping two of the 127 hits of acid found in a friend's shoe, a sixteen-year old who is grounded for a year curls up in the corner of her ratty bedroom, picks up a pen, and begins to write.

Huxley, A. 1962. Island. Harper & Row. Classic tale of a utopian society with psychedelic rites-of-passage.

Johnson, J.T. 2001. The Thundering Years: Rituals and Sacred Wisdom for Teens. Inner Traditions. A guidebook of approaches to rites-of-passage; praises altered states but has a negative approach toward drug use to reach these.

Levine, N. 2003. Dharma Punx. Harper San Francisco. Noah Levine--son of Buddhist teacher and author Stephen Levine--updates his father's path to enlightenment in this memoir. As with many self-destructive kids, the author's search for meaning led him first to punk rock, drugs, drinking, and dissatisfaction. Fueled by his anger and so much injustice and suffering, he now uses that energy and the practice of Buddhism to awaken his natural wisdom and compassion.

Weil, A.T. and W. Rosen. 1983 (Revised 1993). Chocolate to Morphine: Understanding Mind-Active Drugs. Houghton Mifflin. Excellent non-biased introduction to psychoactive substances for pre-teens.

Weil, A.T. 1972. The Natural Mind: A New Way of Looking at Drugs and the Higher Consciousness. Houghton Mifflin. Postulates that the desire for altered states of consciousness is an inborn human drive.

Zimmer, L. and J.P. Morgan. 1997. Marijuana Myths Marijuana Facts: A Review of the Scientific Evidence. The Lindesmith Center. Excellent overview that dispels many myths regarding the harms of Cannabis, providing factual information based on scientific studies instead of propaganda.

Audio tape

Schaefer, S.B. 1996. Pregnancy, Children and Peyote in Huichol Culture. Cassette tape of lecture at San Francisco Entheobotany Conference. Botanical Preservation Corps.